What is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a common form of diabetes in which people have high glucose levels in their body. The pancreas makes a hormone called as insulin which turn glucose (sugar) from the food you eat into energy for your activities.
People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin within the body, however their body don’t use it well as others do. It is called as insulin resistance.
At first, the pancreas will try to make more insulin to match glucose. But eventually it can’t keep up and you will have high blood sugar levels.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates about 29 million people in the United States suffer from this form of diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be so mild, many people do not feel it until the blood sugar levels are abnormally high. Some common symptoms of type 2 diabetes that you need to be aware of, include:
- Feeling worn out
- Yeast infections that keep coming back
- Wounds that don’t heal
- Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet
- Being irritable
- Blurry vision
- Peeing a lot, especially at night
- Being very thirsty
If you experience any of these symptoms on a regular basis, try to contact to your doctor.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
A common combination of things that lead to type 2 diabetes, including:
- Too much glucose from your liver. When the blood sugar is low, the liver produces glucose to turn carb from food you eat into sugar to meet the glucose need in your body. Usually, the liver will slow down and saving its glucose for later use. However, in some cases the livers keep produce glucose although the body is high in blood sugar.
- Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions, including triglycerides, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, extra fat around the waist and high blood glucose.
- Obesity. Being obese or overweight can lead to insulin resistance. Today, type 2 diabetes not only affects adults, but also kids and teens, mainly because of childhood obesity.
- Genes. Modern scientists have found DNA that affect the ways of your body produces insulin.
Some things make getting type 2 diabetes more likely, the more that apply to you, the higher your chances of getting diabetes, such as:
- Being overweight or obese
- High triglycerides
- Low HDL (“good”) cholesterol
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- High blood pressure
- Heart and blood vessel disease
Other risk factors that related to your lifestyle or daily habits, including:
- Sleeping too much or too little
- Little or no exercise
And some things you can’t control.
- Ethnicity: Pacific Islander-American, Asian-American, Native American, Alaska Native, or African-American
- Family: A brother, sister or parent with diabetes
- Age: 45 or older
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Despite there is no cure for type 2 diabetes, you can still manage your condition by eating health foods, exercise regularly or insulin therapy if you think the both aren’t working for you.
You also need to check and record your blood sugar levels regularly to make sure it remains within your safe range. Sometimes, blood sugar levels can change unpredictable.
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Type 2 diabetes can get worse over time forcing you to change your lifestyle to control the glucose levels. In some cases, they may not be enough and you eventually need to take medication to better control your blood glucose levels.
Metformin is one of the medicines used to treat type 2 diabetes. It help reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver and makes your body’s cells more responsive to insulin.
Metformin is recommended for adults with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
However, it can sometimes cause diarrhoea and nausea. If you have kidney damage, you may not be able to take it
– Glitazones (thiazolidinediones, TZDs)
Thiazolidinedione medicines (pioglitazone) make your body’s cells more sensitive to insulin.
It may cause ankle swelling (oedema) and weight gain. You are not allowed to take pioglitazone if you have a high risk of bone fracture or heart failure.
Sulphonylureas help increase the amount of insulin produced by your pancreas.
However, it can increase the risk of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar), diarrhoea, nausea and weight gain.
– Insulin injections
If glucose-lowering tablets aren’t working for you, you may need to consider insulin treatment. It can be taken alongside the tablets, depending on the way how you take it and the dose.
Insulin must be injected because it would be broken down in the stomach if it were taken like food.
Insulin injections are given using either an injection pen or a syringe. You may need between two and four insulin injections a day
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Increasing the amount of fiber in your diet and reducing your fat intake, particularly saturated fat, can help prevent type 2 diabetes, as well as manage the condition if you already have it. You should:
For diet, you need to increase consumption of fiber and reducing your fat intake, especially saturated fat, such as:
- eat fruit, low-fat yoghurts or unsalted nuts as snacks
- avoid high-fat foods, such as samosas, crisps or mayonnaise
- eat lean meat and fish
- choose skimmed and semi-skimmed milk
- eat high-fiber foods, such as vegetables, beans or wholegrain bread
Is Type 2 Diabetes Reversible?
Maybe it sounds too good to be true to able reverse type 2 diabetes.
Certainly lifestyle is the key to manage the condition, but whether you can turn back the time like you never had diabetes is a different matter.